Diction related problems have a multifaceted aetiology which include anatomical, psychological and mental factors. The degree of severity can range from difficulty in the correct pronunciation of individual words to total inability to articulate sounds, words and sentences.

The specialist responsible for this area is the speech therapist.

Bearing in mind that malocclusions are closely linked to lingual functions, the orthodontist also has an important role to play in speech therapy.

The lingual pearl is a therapeutic appliance designed to help educate lingual functions. This appliance allows the re-education of deglutition and the training of lingual movements (muscular gymnastics), mainly for tongues which have been limited for a long time by a pronounced lingual frenum. It is a complement to speech therapy.

Possible therapy with the lingual pearl includes lingual muscle training, the pronunciation of some consonants, sounds, melodies, words and sentences coupled with respiratory training.

Exercises for Portuguese diction


– palatal – /l/, /n/, /t/ – The tip of the tongue should rest on the lingual pearl.
– long consonants – /s/, /z/ – sssssss type sounds, zzzzzzzz. The tip of the tongue is positioned in front of the lingual pearl.


– Ta – the tip of the tongue rotates the pearl backwards.
– Tla – the tip of the tongue rotates the pearl forwards.
– Trew – the tip of the tongue is positioned behind the pearl.


– Tio, Luís, nadar, tudo,…


– O tio do Luís não trouxe nada para ele. Ele é um despistado.
Também lhe chamam mentiroso.


– The tip of the tongue rotates the pearl both backwards and forwards.

  • Ta ra ta ra ta
  • Tic tac tic tac
  • Laralarala
  • Tiroliroliro
  • Tiroliroló

– The final position for the tip of the tongue is above the pearl.

Exercises for English diction


Alveolar – /l/, /s/
Practice sentence – Lazy Sue, lonely Sally.

Palato alveolar – /r/
Practice sentence – Rick rode in a red car.

Dental – /ð/
Practice sentence – The mother and father.


De Da De Da De Da

Tra La La Tra La La

Ra Ta Ta Tat Ra Ta Ta Tat


/ts/ – Church, Children
/dz/ – Jazz, Jump